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How black holes die? Explained in Details.

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Black holes are space-time areas where gravity rules: A black hole's gravitational force is so intense that nothing, not even light, will escape. They range in size from black holes with stellar mass, the masses of which can range from five to 100 times that of the Sun, all the way to supermassive black holes, which can exceed more than a billion solar masses.

Astronomers now assume that in most galaxies, supermassive black holes hide inside the heart. (A noteworthy exception to this rule is M33, which continues to lack a central supermassive black hole, despite being the third-largest member of our local group.)

Right now, the Stelliferous Age of the Universe is when stars and planets are constantly at rest. The materials to make these objects will finally be used up, and the stars in the night sky will slowly wink out, leaving black holes as the only inhabitants of the cosmos.

But all those black holes are going to die one day. And these creatures will not go quietly into the night as they do so. In the last moments of any black hole, a burst of explosions would light up the world, heralding the end of the age.

Cheating death

By engulfing the gas and stars around them, black holes survive, and it is their gluttony that gives them away. They are also surrounded by substance accretion disks that they have broken apart and sucked tightly together, like water swirling down a pipe. It continues to move faster and faster as debris draws near, building up around the black hole. Heat is produced by friction between the dust, allowing the accretion disk to shine, which outlines the black hole's shadow or its event horizon. "It wants to hide, but sometimes it does a pretty bad job," says Sheperd Doeleman, a Harvard University black hole researcher and director of the Event Horizon Telescope, which caught the first image of a blue hole.

Death pain

It greatly depends on its mass precisely how long an actual black hole exists. The bigger a black hole gets, the longer the evaporation takes. "In that sense, by growing, [a black hole] can cheat death," Doeleman says.

He compares the mechanism to an hourglass, where the amount of time a black hole has left is the sand at the end. A black hole manages to add sand to its life's hourglass by gobbling down more stars and carbon, even as individual particles trickle out. "The black hole can keep resetting its clock as long as there is material around [to eat]," Doeleman says. Eventually, the material around a black hole will run out as the world ages and the doomsday clock will begin ticking.

It steadily shrinks when a black hole evaporates and, as it loses mass, the rate of escaped particles also increases until all the remaining energy exits at once. A black hole in the last tenth of a second, “you will have a huge flash of light and energy,” Natarajan says. “It’s almost like a million nuclear fusion bombs going off in a very tiny region of space.”

It doesn’t matter how small or how massive a black hole is, their closing fireworks are the same. The only difference is how long it will take a black hole to explode. But once a black hole gobbles down its last meal, all that’s left is for the sand grains to relentlessly tumble down until there’s nothing left.

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